The condition when there is no sperm in the semen is called azoospermia. It results from blockage of the sperm carrying ducts or because of sperm production failure. The treatment for these cases is microinjection. In this treatment method, the urologist performs surgical procedures TESA or TESE to obtain sperm. Nowadays, approximately 15% of couples who consult IVF centers are treated with these methods.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)
It is the method of sucking out the fluid inside the testicle with a needle in order to obtain sperm when there is blockage or under development of the sperm carrying ducts or inability to find sperm in the semen that is withdrawn from the male because of very low amount of sperm production. The operation is carried out under local anaesthesia and later that day the patient cancontinue his usual routine. The mature or developing sperms that are obtained by this method are used for ICSI (microinjection) method.
TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
It is the process of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle with a surgical operation in cases where TESA has not worked out.The operation is carried out under local anesthesia and later that day the patient can continue his usual routine. The operation consists of removing small tissue pieces from the testes by examining with surgical microscope. Use of surgical microscope helps to detect areas of the tissue with a high possibility of finding sperms. Also, damage on the tissue feeding veins is minimised. The tissue pieces removed are further examined under microscope. If sperm cells are found, they go through several preparation stages in order to be used with ICSI (microinjection) method.