The condition when there is no sperm in the semen is called azoospermia. It results from the blockage of the sperm-carrying ducts or due to sperm production failure. The treatment for these cases is microinjection. In this treatment method, the urologist performs a surgical procedure, TESA or TESE, to obtain sperm. Nowadays, approximately 15% of couples who consult IVF centers are treated with these methods.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)
It is the method of sucking out the fluid inside the testicle with a needle in order to obtain sperm when there is a blockage or under development of the sperm-carrying ducts or inability to find sperm in the semen that is withdrawn from the male because of very low amount of sperm production. The operation is carried out under local anaesthesia and later that day the patient can continue with his usual routine. The mature or developing sperms that are obtained using this method are used for ICSI (microinjection).
TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
It is the process of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle with a surgical operation in cases where TESA has not been successful. The operation is carried out under local anaesthesia and later that day the patient can continue with his usual routine. The operation consists of removing small tissue pieces from the testes by examining under a surgical microscope. Use of the surgical microscope helps to detect the areas of tissue with high possibility of finding sperm cells. At the same time, damage on the tissue feeding veins is minimised. The tissue pieces removed are further examined under a microscope. If sperm cells are found, they go through several preparatory stages in order to be used for ICSI (microinjection).